Immunology in Dentistry (2023)

Recommended articles (6)

  • Research article

    Flow cytometry-based analysis by Sysmex-UF1000i® is an alternative method in the assessment of periodontal inflammation

    Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 436, 2014, pp. 176-180

    Gingivitis is a common inflammatory condition. We explored the value of flow cytometry of saliva in patients with periodontal inflammation.

    A cohort of 249 healthy adults (age range: 18–81y; 2.5th to 97.5th percentile: 19–66y) was investigated for caries, dental plaque and gingivitis. Saliva was analyzed using flow cytometry on a Sysmex UF-1000i®.

    Sysmex UF-1000i® is capable to reproduce reliable measurements of cellular components in saliva. A statistically significant lower number of salivary bacteria was found in patients with gingivitis in comparison with healthy adults (p<0.0001). A significant difference in salivary leukocyte count was found between patients with different gingival index scores (p<0.0005). The gingivitis score was strongly dependent on the number of salivary leukocytes, the age of the patient and the degree of caries and dental plaque (r2=0.60, p<0.001). At a cut-off level of 103 leukocytes/μl saliva, an area under the curve of 0.82 was obtained with a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in patients (>35y) with a gingivitis score of 3.

    Flow cytometry is an alternative method to evaluate local inflammatory processes in the mouth with a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78%.

  • Research article

    Seasonal Variation in Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection: Comparing between UK and Australian Sites

    Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Volume 26, Issue 1, 2017, pp. 177-185

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is a leading cause of stroke among middle-aged adults, but the etiology is unclear. Some reports of seasonal variation in CAD incidence have been suggested but may reflect extreme climatic conditions. Seasonal variation may implicate more transient seasonal causes such as proinflammatory or hypercoagulable states. This study aimed to assess whether CAD incidence varied with season between UK and Australian sites. Also, this study aimed to determine whether there was a different pattern of seasonal variation between arteries (carotid and vertebral) and any association between CAD incidence and clinical factors.

    This was a retrospective observational study of patients older than 18 years with radiological diagnosis of internal carotid or vertebral arterial dissection, from sites in Australia and the UK. Clinical variables were compared between autumn-winter and spring-summer and site of dissection.

    A total of 133 CAD cases were documented in Australia and 242 in the UK. There was a seasonal pattern to CAD incidence in countries in both the northern and the southern hemispheres, with a trend for dissection to occur more commonly in autumn, winter, and spring than in summer (incidence rate ratios [IRR] 1.4-1.5, P < .05). CAD counts were also slightly higher in internal carotid than in vertebral artery (IRRs 1.168, 1.43, and 1.127, respectively). Neither systolic blood pressure nor pulse pressure was significantly associated with CAD counts.

    CAD occurs more commonly in cooler months regardless of geographical location, suggesting transient seasonal causes may be important in the pathophysiology. This effect was slightly higher in internal carotid than in vertebral artery, suggesting differing trigger mechanisms between dissection sites.

  • Research article

    Absolute bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion of 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde in rats

    Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 35, 2017, pp. 90-96

    2,4,5-Trimethoxybenzaldehyde (2,4,5-TMBA), a natural inhibitor of cyclooxygenase II activity, is a bitter principle present in plants. In our previous study, 2,4,5-TMBA suppresses differentiation of preadipocytes and enhances lipolysis in mature adipocytes. This study aimed to investigate the absolute bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion of 2,4,5-TMBA in Sprague-Dawley rats. After oral administration (po) and intravenous administration (iv) of 100 and 10mg/kg 2,4,5-TMBA, respectively, the absolute bioavailability was estimated as 62.77% by calculating [(AUCpo×Doseiv)/(AUCiv×Dosepo)]×100% (AUC: area under curve). Half hour after oral administration, 2,4,5-TMBA reached the highest concentration of 211.661μg/g in stomach. In one hour, 2,4,5-TMBA reached the highest concentrations in heart, liver, kidney, small intestine, and large intestine. Total amount of unconverted 2,4,5-TMBA eliminated in feces and urine in 24h is only 0.03% of oral dosage administrated. The data presented provides useful information for the future application of 2,4,5-TMBA as nutraceutical.

  • Research article

    In vitro evaluation of the biological activities of IgG in seven Chinese intravenous immunoglobulin preparations

    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 151, 2018, pp. 317-323

    The IgG activities of antigen recognition, Fc-mediated complement activation and cellular Fcγ-receptors (FcγRs) binding are critical for intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) immunotherapy in a variety of immune deficiency diseases. Further, these activities could be influenced by different plasma sources and the IVIg manufacturing processes of different manufacturers. This study evaluated and compared the biological activities of IgG in 7 IVIg preparations produced by different Chinese manufacturers. By using ELISA and two-dimensional immunoblotting, the binding capacity and antibody repertoire of IVIg against typical pathogenic antigens were investigated. Further, Fc-mediated complement activation and receptor binding activities were measured by the haemolysis method and flow-cytometric assay respectively. The results showed that all of the preparations tested have a broad spectrum of antibodies against the E. coli O157:H7 proteome, and each IVIg has its own distinct antibody repertoire. Compared to the European Pharmacopoeia IgG standard, the mean indices of the pathogenic antigen binding capacity, complement activation activity and FcγRs binding activity in Chinese preparations were 152%, 143% and 87%. The biological activities varied widely among the 7 IVIg preparations, and no significant differences were observed between the different batches of most IVIgs from the same manufacturer. This study will contribute to the improvement of the IVIg product quality evaluation system and an increased understanding of the variety of IgG biological activities in Chinese IVIg preparations.

  • Research article

    The influence of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-related oral manifestations

    Journal of the National Medical Association, Volume 113, Issue 4, 2021, pp. 449-456

    This review aims to provide primary medical and dental healthcare professionals with the current state of information on the oral manifestations of HIV infection in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART) advancements.

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with an increased risk of infectious, neoplastic, and immune-mediated oral complications that are regarded as a major constituent of this global epidemic. HIV-related oral manifestations have been subject to changes in their prevalence with the employment of ART, particularly in this period of enhanced patient accessibility to ART. Available antiretroviral medications (ARVs), the clinical presentation of common HIV-related oral manifestations, and patients and healthcare providers’ perceptions are also discussed.

    Screening, diagnosing, and treating patients with HIV/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has improved drastically since the isolation and characterization of HIV. Oral manifestations have been acknowledged to correlate with treatment responses and disease progression. Healthcare providers should be familiar with HIV-related oral manifestations and comfortable in managing and referring patients with HIV/AIDS, they are also key stakeholders in facilitating the elimination of the stigma associated with the infection.

  • Research article

    Curvature height and distance of MB canal of mandibular molar with Schneider angle and its comparison with canal access angle

    Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 8, Issue 3, 2018, pp. 212-216

    To measure the proposed curvature height and distance of MB canal of mandibular molar with Schneider angle and its comparison with canal access angle both before and after instrumentation, and to compare among each other with multiple linear regression analysis.

    One hundred human mandibular first and second molars were used for the study. After endodontic access, a size 10k-file was placed in the mesiobuccal canal extending to the apical foramen and radiographs were taken by using Radiovisiography. Both Schneider and canal access angle with its respective linear counterpart (Curvature height and curvature distance) was measured and calculated by using PLANMECA romexis (Helsinki Finland) software connected to the Intraoral x-ray unit both before and after biomechanical preparation with mesiobuccal canal till size F2. Statistical analysis was done by using multiple linear regression analysis.

    A significant difference was observed between before and after enlargement with respect to Schneider angle and Canal access angle with a t-value being (t=11.0629, p<0.05) (t=10.5773, p<0.05) for before and after enlargement of canals respectively. Percent of change is observed more with curvature height (29.62%) as compared with the curvature distance (8.87%)

    Schneider angle with its proposed curvature height and distance reduced after instrumentation. Whereas canal access angle decreased and its curvature height and distance have increased after instrumentation.

Copyright © 1980 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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